This is the old China rose, "Eugene de Beauharnais," and it's the first rose to bloom in my garden this year.
It is said to date from 1838, although there is now some talk that the rose sold as "Eugene de Beauharnais" is really a Bourbon called "Le Grande Capitaine."
It's a low-growing shrub - mine is being swamped by a nearby Gaura lindheimeri "Siskyou Pink." It opens fully double, quartered blossoms a clear cherry red, and then the petals age to violet. It's scent is super-strong, "old-rose" and quite intoxicating.
For me, it's a weak and spindly plant wholly justified by its amazing scent and intriguing color. It blooms all year long - well, it starts early and ends late, but there are periods of no bloom in between.
It's named after Napoleon's stepson - the child of Empress Josephine and her first husband, Alexandre the Vicomte de Beauharnais. He was quite a military hero, and his step-father appointed him to several duchys and various other noble offices. He married a Bavarian princess and had plenty of kids who married a bunch of other European royals.
He's pretty happy here in my garden, despite the gaura. I think I'll keep him.